Famous Women Leaders
Look at of the title at this time i have write, i love to discover some of wonder women who ever alives and still alive on this earth and how was amazed I am with all these women to the world. Maybe we’re never realize why we just think only man can be a leader? Some says women is not perfect be a leader as a men as do, couse women think with her feeling not with the sense, hm…. I don’t think so! So lets we are flying now to United State at this time year 2008 and what is happened? News papers and all medias has crowded with Obama and Hilary… Hilary? Yes she is the one now (beside some women leaders such as Margaret Thatcher, Indira Gandhi or Benazir Bhutto) who will run and fight be a one the top of the leader in the world. Do you think she can be the one too?
(Wow… i just can wishpered to my self if i were be one of them… Well even nor you and i weren’t like them but at least i am one of them in my world (smile). Yes i am one of them who’s try hard to reach and win this world with my goals for many unlucky people in this small spot ground of this earth…) —>(will be continue in another time for poor people fundation)
But anyway… lets discover women leaders whom i adore so much……………………….
Born in 1925, Margaret Hilda Roberts worked her way to Oxford and earned two degrees there – one in chemistry and another in law. At the age of 34, she joined the English Parliament where her quick wit helped push her higher through the Tory ranks. At the age of 44, she was named Education Minister – a position that could be safely and acceptably held by women in Parliament.
Thatcher got lucky in 1975, when her party’s candidate abandoned the contest against Edward Health for control of the Conservative leadership. Thatcher stepped in and beat Heath. In fact, she was undefeated in the polls during the election years of 1975, 1979, 1983 and 1987. This made her the longest serving Prime Minister during the 20th century.
In foreign affairs, she built and maintained a strong relationship with the United States and in particular with Ronald Reagan. She was also responsible for changing the economic and cultural systems of Great Britain. She is credited with reducing the power of unions, increasing home ownership and reducing the role of government in business affairs. This transformed the culture of Great Britain to one that had more of an entrepreneurial spirit.
However, the 1980’s were a time marked by high unemployment and run away inflation. At times her policies were blamed for high unemployment rates and an increase in the divide between the wealthy and poor. As the economy turned the corner in the mid 1980’s, the followers of Thatcher were quick to credit her policies for the improvement.
Margaret’s downfall in popularity is often attributed to some very unpopular taxes she introduced, including a Community Charge. At that same time there was a crisis concerning Britain’s position with respect to the European Economic and Monetary Union. Thatcher was forced to resign in 1990, but she was later named Baroness Thatcher. Through that position she continues to exert her political power as head of the Thatcher Foundation.
Born: November 19, 1917
Died: October 31, 1984
Achievements: Became President of Indian National Congress in 1959; was Minister of Information and Broadcasting in Lal Bahadur Shastri’s government; became Prime Minister in 1966; nationalized major banks in 1969; gave the slogan of Garibi Hatao during 1971 general elections; led India to a decisive war against Pakistan in 1971.
Indira Gandhi, one of the best-known women of the 20th century, was Prime Minister of India, and daughter of former Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Also known as Indira Nehru Gandhi, she was born on November 19, 1917 in Allahabad. She was born in a family that was at the centre of Indian freedom movement. Her father Jawaharlal Nehru and grandfather Motilal Nehru were at the forefront of Indian freedom struggle. Her mother Kamla Nehru, although less involved politically, was subject to political arrest by the British. Indira Gandhi had a lonely childhood, with some of her most vivid remembrances being the entry into her home of British policemen. As her parents did not want to send her to any of the British schools in India, Indira Gandhi’s education took place at a series of Indian schools and at non-British schools in Europe, with a number of private tutorials interspersed between periods at school.
Indira Gandhi married a Parsi named Feroze Gandhi in 1942. The marriage was opposed by orthodox Hindus because it was an intercommunal love marriage not arranged by her parents. Jawaharlal Nehru too opposed the marriage on grounds that the couple were somewhat incompatible because both possessed fiery tempers. Publicly, however, both Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi strenuously defended the marriage. Shortly after their marriage both Indira Gandhi and Feroze Gandhi were arrested and jailed for nationalist activities. Indira Gandhi was released after eight months and Feroze Gandhi after an year. After the release Feroze Gandhi became editor of The National Herald, a newspaper founded by Jawaharlal Nehru, and Mrs. Indira Gandhi became the principal confidant and assistant of her father during the period of Nehru’s prime ministership (1947-1965). The couple separated for a number of years during the 1950s as Feroze Gandhi launched his own political career in Parliament and was often at odds with Jawaharlal Nehru’s policies and style. In 1959 Indira Gandhi became President of the Indian National Congress and in 1964 she was elected to the parliament. Meanwhile, the death of Feroze Gandhi (from a heart attack) in 1960, and the subsequent death of her father in 1964, caused Indira Gandhi to withdraw into a shell and limit herself to her immediate family.
After the death of Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri became Prime Minister and Indira Gandhi was the minister of Information and Broadcasting in his government. After Lal Bahadur Shastri’s untimely death in 1966, she was selected as prime minister by party bosses within the Congress Party as a compromise candidate. Her candidature was opposed by Morarji Desai, a veteran nationalist and prime ministerial aspirant himself. The Congress bosses were apparently looking for a leading figure acceptable to the masses, who could not only command general support during the next general election but who would also acquiesce to their guidance. In her initial days as Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi encountered numerous problems such as Mizo tribal uprisings in the northeast; famine, labour unrest, and misery among the poor in the wake of rupee devaluation; and agitation in Punjab for linguistic and religious separatism.
In the fourth general elections held in 1967, Congress suffered a major setback. Congress majority was greatly reduced in parliament and non-Congress ministries were established in Bihar, Kerala, Orissa, Madras, Punjab, and West Bengal. This forced Mrs. Indira Gandhi to become assertive and opt for a series of choices that pitted her directly against the Congress Party high command, which had previously been built up by her father. Seeking to eradicate poverty, Mrs. Gandhi pursued a vigorous policy in 1969 of land reform and placed a ceiling on personal income, private property, and corporate profits. She also nationalized the major banks, a bold step amidst a growing rift between herself and the party elders. The Congress expelled her for “indiscipline” on November 12, 1969, an action that split the party into two factions: the Congress (O)-for Organisation-led by Morarji Desai, and the Congress (I)–for Indira-led by Indira Gandhi.
Indira Gandhi campaigned fiercely on the slogan of “Garibi Hatao” (eliminate poverty) during the fifth general elections in March 1971 and won an unprecedented two-third majority. Her leadership qualities came to the fore during India-Pakistan war in 1971 that resulted in liberation of Bangladesh. India achieved decisive victory over Pakistan in the face of diplomatic opposition from both China and the United States and a lack of international support from almost every other nation except the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc countries. Indian victory over Pakistan led to a great surge in Indira Gandhi’s popularity and she was compared to Goddess Durga by ordinary Indians.
Expectations raised by the garibi hatao campaign and India’s victory over Pakistan in 1971 led to great disappointment and political difficulties in the mid-1970s. Enormous economic cost of 1971 war, increase in world oil prices and, drop in industrial output added to the economic hardships. During this time J.P.Narayan initiated a civil disobedience movement against Indira Gandhi. In June 1975, amidst all this crises Allahabad High Court invalidated her 1971 election on the grounds of electoral malpractices. Instead of resigning, Indira Gandhi declared an Emergency in the country and jailed al her political opponents. The Emergency lasted till March 1977 and in the general election held afterwards she was defeated by a coalition of parties called Janta Morcha.
Factionalism among coalition partners led to the collapse of Janta government and Indira Gandhi came back to the power once again in 1980. But her second innings was beset with difficulties and personal tragedies. Her younger son Sanjay Gandhi died in an air crash. Her government was confronted with serious challenges to its ability to maintain law and order as conflicts between religious and ethnic groups broke out in different parts of the country. After the army had invaded the Golden Temple in Amritsar, the chief shrine of the Sikhs, which had been held as an armed camp by a group of militant Sikhs, she became the target for Sikh anger and on 31 October 1984 she was assassinated by her own Sikh bodyguard.
President of the Republic of the Philippines since February 25, 1986, Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, has experienced praise and faced adversity with courage and directness.
Two and one half years after her husband’s assassination on August 21, 1983, this politically inexperienced homemaker and mother of four daughters and one son, took the reins of one of the world’s most volatile nations. What is even more impressive, she has maintained her power and fortitude despite several attempts to take away her leadership.
Cory Aquino received her education at the Assumption Convent in the Philippines, Ravenhill Academy in Philadelphia, Notre Dame Convent School in New York, College of Mount Saint Vincent in New York and Far Eastern University in the Philippines.
Her honorary degrees include Doctor of Humane Letters, College of Mount Saint Vincent (NY), Ateneo de Manila University and Xavier University (Philippines), Doctor of Laws from University of the Philippines, and Honoris Causa, Boston University, Fordham University, Waseda University (Tokyo), Eastern University and University of Santo Tomas (Manila), as well as Doctor of Humanities, Stonehill College in Massachusetts.
President Aquino’s awards and distinctions are numerous, some include: Woman of the Year, Time magazine, the Eleanor Roosevelt Human Rights Award, the United Nations Silver Medal, and the Canadian International Prize for Freedom.
It is with great pride that Women’s International Center honors the perseverance and dedication of Corazon Aquino with the International Leadership Living Legacy Award.
~ by yfred on February 27, 2008.